Bhagavad Gita: 13. Creation and The Creator


The theory of creation

The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, this physical body, the miniature universe, may be called the field or creation. One who knows the creation is called the creator by the seers of truth. (13.01) O Arjuna, know Me to be the creator of all the creation. The true understanding of both the creator and the creation is considered by Meto be the transcendental (or metaphysical) knowledge.(13.02) What the creation is, what it is like, what its transformations are, where its source is, who that creator is, and what His powers are --- hear all these from Me in brief. (13.03)The seers have separately described the creation and the creator in different ways in the Vedic hymns, and also in the conclusive and convincing verses of the Brahma-Sutra. (13.04) The primary material Nature, cosmic intellect, "I" consciousness or ego, five basic elements, ten organs, mind, five sense objects; and desire, hatred, pleasure, pain, the physical body, consciousness, and resolve --- thus the entire field has been briefly described with its transformations. (See also7.04) (13.05-06)

The fourfold noble truth as means of Nirvāna Humility, modesty, nonviolence, forgiveness, honesty,s ervice to guru, purity (of thought, word, and deed),steadfastness, self-control; and aversion towards sense objects, absence of ego; constant reflection on pain and suffering inherent in birth, old age, disease, and death; (13.07-08) detached attachment with family members, home, etc.; unfailing calmness upon attainment of the desirable and the undesirable; and unswerving devotion to Me through single-minded contemplation, taste for solitude, distaste for social gatherings and gossips; steadfastness in acquiring the knowledge of Eternal Being, and seeing the omnipresent Supreme Being everywhere --- this is said to be (the means of) Self knowledge. That which is contrary to this is ignorance.(13.09-11)

God can be described by parables and not in any other way
I shall fully describe the object of knowledge --- knowing which one attains immortality. The beginning less Supreme Being is said to be neither eternal (Sat) nor temporal (Asat). (See also 9.19, 11.37, and 15.18)(13.12) The Eternal Being has His hands, feet, eyes,head, mouth, and ears everywhere because He is all pervading and omnipresent. (13.13) He is the perceiver of all sense objects without the physical sense organs; unattached, and yet the sustainer of all; devoid of three modes of material Nature, and yet the enjoyer of the modes of material Nature by becoming a living entity.(13.14) He is inside as well as outside all beings, animate and inanimate. He is incomprehensible because of His subtlety. And because of His omnipresence, He is very near --- residing in one’s inner psyche; as well as far away --- in the Supreme Abode. (13.15) He is undivided, and yet appears to exist as if divided in beings. He, the object of knowledge, appears as: Brahmā, the creator; Vishnu, the sustainer; and Shiva, the destroyer of all beings. (See also 11.13, and 18.20) (13.16)The Supreme Person is the source of all light. He is said to be beyond darkness (of ignorance or Māyā). He is the Self-knowledge, the object of Self-knowledge, and seated in the inner psyche (or the causal heart as consciousness (See verse 18.61)) of all beings, He is to be realized by Self-knowledge. (See also 15.06 and 15.12)(13.17) Thus the creation as well as the knowledge and the object of knowledge have been briefly described by Me. Understanding this, My devotee attains My supreme abode. (13.18)

A description of the supreme spirit, spirit, and individual soul
Know that both the material Nature and the Spiritual Being are beginning less. All manifestations and three states of mind and matter, called modes or Gunas, are born of Prakriti. Prakriti is said to be the cause of production of the physical body and the eleven organs of perception and action. Purusha (Consciousness, Spirit) is said to be the cause of experiencing pleasure and pain.(13.19-20) Purusha enjoys three modes of material Nature (Prakriti) by associating with Prakriti. Attachment to the Gunas (due to ignorance caused by previous Karma) is the cause of birth of the living entity in good and evil wombs. (13.21)Eternal Being (Brahma, Atmā, Spirit) in the body is also called the witness, the guide, the supporter, the enjoyer, the great Lord, and also the Supreme Self. (13.22)They who truly understand Spiritual Being (Purusha) and the material Nature (Prakriti) with its three modes(Gunas) are not born again, regardless of their way of life. (13.23) some perceive the super soul in their inner psyche through mind and intellect that have been purified either by meditation or by metaphysical knowledge or by KarmaYoga. (13.24)

The faith alone can lead to Nirvāna
Others, however, do not know the yogas of meditation, knowledge, and work; but they perform deity worship with faith, as mentioned in the scriptures by the saints and sages. They also transcend death by virtue of their firm faith in what they have heard. (13.25) Whatever is born, animate or inanimate, know them to be born from the union of the matter and Spirit, O Arjuna. (See also7.06) (13.26) The one who sees the same eternal Supreme Lord dwelling as Spirit equally within all mortal beings, truly sees. (13.27)Because of beholding one and the same Lord existing equally in every being, one does not injure anybody and thereupon attains the supreme abode. (13.28) One who perceives that all works are done by the powers (Gunas)of material Nature (Prakriti) alone, and thus does not consider oneself as the doer, that person truly understands.(See also 3.27, 5.09, and 14.19) (13.29) The moment one discovers the diverse variety of beings and their ideas abiding in One and coming out from That alone, one attains the Supreme Being. (13.30)

Attributes of the spirit
Because of being beginning less and unaffectable by the three modes of material Nature, the eternal super soul ---even though dwelling in the body as a living entity ---neither does anything nor becomes tainted, O Arjuna.(13.31) Just as the all-pervading space is not tainted because of its subtlety; similarly, Spirit, abiding in all bodies ,is not tainted. (13.32) Just as one sun illuminates the entire world; similarly, Eternal Being illumines (or gives life to) the entire creation, O Arjuna. (13.33)They attain the Supreme, who perceive the difference between creation (or the body) and the creator(or the Atmā) with the eye of Self-knowledge, and know the technique (by using any one of the five paths--- Selfless service, Knowledge, Devotion, Meditation, and Surrender) of liberation of the living entity(Jeeva) from the trap of divine illusory energy(Māyā). (13.34)